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My Son Sanctuary

Between the 4th & 13th centuries a unique culture which owed its spiritual origins lớn Indian Hinduism developed on the coast of contemporary Viet Nam. This is graphically illustrated by the remains of a series of impressive tower-temples located in a dramatic site that was the religious & political capital of the Champa Kingdom for most of its existence.

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Sanctuaire de Mi-sön

Du IVe au XIIIe siècle, la côte du Viet phái nam contemporain accueillait une culture unique, associée par ses racines spirituelles à l"hindouisme indien. Cette relation est illustrée par les vestiges d"une série d"impressionnantes tours-sanctuaires, au cœur d"un site remarquable qui fut pendant quasiment toute son existence la capitale religieuse et politique du royaume de Champâ.

Description is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


ضريح مي- سون

احتضن ساحل فييتنام الحديثة من القرن الرابع الى القرن الثالث عشر ثقافة فريدة ترتبط جذورها الروحية بالهندوسية الهندية. وتبرز هذه العلاقة في آثار سلسلة من الأبراج الهرمية المدهشة في قلب موقع ملفت شكّل طيلة فترة وجوده تقريباً عاصمة دينية وسياسية لمملكة تشامبا.

source: thutrang.edu.vn/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


圣子修道院

公元4世纪到13世纪,一种独特的文化在现在的越南边境地区得到了发展,这种文化的宗教起源是印度教。由占婆王国作为宗教和政治首府时所保存的一系列庙宇和殿堂生动地说明了这一切。

source: thutrang.edu.vn/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


Святилище Мишон

В период между IV и XIII вв. в этом приморском районе Вьетнама сложилась уникальная цивилизация, духовные основы которой были тесно связаны с индуизмом. Доказательством этому служат остатки впечатляющих башнеподобных храмов, расположенных в живописном месте, где некогда существовала религиозная и культурная столица государства Чампа.

source: thutrang.edu.vn/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


Santuario de My Son

En el litoral del actual Viet phái mạnh floreció, entre los siglos IV y XIII, una civilización única en su género, cuyas raíces espirituales estaban estrechamente vinculadas al hinduismo. Vestigio de esa civilización es el conjunto de imponentes torres-santuarios erigidas en el sitio espectacular donde estuvo emplazada la ciudad que fue capital política y religiosa del Reino de Champa durante la casi totalidad de ese periodo.

source: thutrang.edu.vn/ERIDescription is available under license CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0


ミーソン聖域ベトナム中部、チャンパ王国初期の首都にあたるトラキエウの西方約15kmにある、ヒンドゥー教シヴァ神信仰の聖地。4世紀末に創建のリンガ寺院にはじまり、13世紀までに建てられた寺堂の遺構・遺跡は大小67カ所に及ぶ。最も注目されるのは遺構Aの中心にある煉瓦積みの祠堂で、装飾文様も高度に洗礼され、比較的保存もよく、インドなどからの影響を受けたチャンパ美術の頂点を示している。

source: NFUAJ


My Son-heiligdom

Het My Son heiligdom dateert uit de 4e tot 13e eeuw voor Christus. In die periode ontwikkelde zich bij de kust van het hedendaagse Vietnam een unieke cultuur, die zijn spirituele oorsprong vond in het Indisch hindoeïsme. Dit blijkt duidelijk uit de overblijfselen van een reeks indrukwekkende toren-tempels, gelegen in een stad die voor het grootste deel van haar bestaan de religieuze en politieke hoofdstad was van het koninkrijk van Champa. Onder invloed van het Indiaas hindoeïsme werden veel tempels gebouwd om Hindoegoden te eren. Hoewel Mahayana-boeddhisten de Cham-cultuur binnendrong, bleef het hindoeïsme de gevestigde staatsgodsdienst.

Source: thutrang.edu.vn.nl


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My Son Sanctuary © OUR PLACE The World Heritage Collection

Outstanding Universal Value

Brief synthesis

During the 4th to 13th centuries there was a quality culture on the coast of contemporary Vietnam, owing its spiritual origins lớn the Hinduism of India. This is graphically illustrated by the remains of a series of impressive tower temples in a dramatic site that was the religious & political capital of the Champa Kingdom for most of its existence.

My Son Sanctuary dates from the 4th to lớn the 13th centuries CE. The property is located in the mountainous border Duy Xuyen District of Quang nam giới Province, in central Viet Nam. It is situated within an elevated geological basin surrounded by a ring of mountains, which provides the watershed for the sacred Thu Bon river. The source of the Thu Bon river is here và it flows past the monuments, out of the basin, and through the historic heartland of the Champa Kingdom, draining into the South trung quốc Sea at its mouth near the ancient port thành phố of Hoi An. The location gives the sites its strategic significance as it is also easily defensible.

The tower temples were constructed over ten centuries of continuous development in what was the heart of the ancestral homeland of the ruling Dua Clan which unified the Cham clans and established the kingdom of Champapura (Sanskrit for city of the Cham people) in 192 CE. During the 4th to lớn 13th centuries CE this unique culture, on the coast of contemporary Viet Nam, owed its spiritual origins lớn the Hinduism of the Indian sub-continent. Under this influence many temples were built to the Hindu divinities such as Krishna và Vishnu, but above all Shiva. Although Mahayan Buddhist penetrated the Cham culture, probably from the 4thcentury CE, and became strongly established in the north of the kingdom, Shivite Hinduism remained the established state religion.

The monuments of the My Son sanctuary are the most important constructions of the My Son civilization. The tower temples have a variety of architectural designs symbolizing the greatness & purity of Mount Meru, the mythical sacred mountain trang chủ of Hindu gods at the center of the universe, now symbolically reproduced on Earth in the mountainous homeland of the Cham people. They are constructed in fired brick with stone pillars và decorated with sandstone bas-reliefs depicting scenes from Hindu mythology. Their technological sophistication is evidence of Cham engineering skills while the elaborate iconography và symbolism of the tower-temples give insight into the content and evolution of Cham religious và political thought.

The My Son Sanctuary is a remarkable architectural ensemble that developed over a period of ten centuries. It presents a vivid picture of spiritual and political life in an important phase of the history of South-East Asia.

The monuments are unique & without equal in Southeast Asia.

Criterion (ii): The My Son Sanctuary is an exceptional example of cultural interchange, with an indigenous society adapting lớn external cultural influences, notably the Hindu art & architecture of the Indian sub-continent.

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Criterion (iii): The Champa Kingdom was an important phenomenon in the political and cultural history of South – East Asia, vividly illustrated by the ruins of My Son.

Integrity

The Hindu tower temples of the My Son Sanctuary are located within a well-protected property with clearly defined boundaries. Eight groups of 71 standing monuments exist as well as extensive buried archaeology representing the complete historic sequence of construction of tower temples at the site, covering the entire period of the existence of the Champa Kingdom.

Conservation of the My Son monuments began in the early part of the 20th century CE soon after their discovery in modern times by French archaeologists. During World War II, the First Indo-China War and, especially, during the Second Indo-China War, many tower temples were damaged. However, conservation work has been carried out & the remaining tower temples have been maintained and are well-preserved.

The site is at risk from severe climatic conditions such as flooding và high humidity, though stream widening và clearance of surrounding vegetation have minimized these impacts. There remains an enduring issue of the possible presence of unidentified, unexploded ordnance within the boundaries of the property’s buffer zone, which has affected the archaeological research of newly-discovered areas, restoration of eight monumental areas, as well as site presentation for visitors.

Authenticity

Our understanding of the authenticity of the My Son Sanctuary is underpinned by the work of Henry Parmentier in the early 20th century. Historically, investigation by archaeologists, historians, and other scholars in the 19th and early 20th century has recorded the significance of the site through its monuments, which are masterpieces of brick construction of the period, both in terms of the công nghệ of their construction & because of their intricate carved-brick decorations. The location & the sacred nature of the site ensured that the monuments have remained intact within their original natural setting, although many have suffered some damage over the years. Conservation interventions under French & Polish expert guidance have been relatively minor & do not affect the overall cấp độ of authenticity of the site. The authenticity of My Son in terms of design, materials, workmanship, & setting continues to support it Outstanding Universal Value.

Protection & management requirements

The property was recognized as a National Site in 1979 by the Culture Ministry & as a Special National site in 2009 by the national government. All local và national authorities must act according lớn the provisions of the Cultural Heritage Law (2001 amended 2009).

Overall responsibility for the protection of the property rests with the Ministry of Culture, Sports and Tourism, operating through its Department of Preservation và Museology. This responsibility is devolved to the Quang nam Provincial Department of Culture, sport and Tourism which collaborates closely with the People’s Committee of Duy Xuyen District, which has established My Son Management Board of Relics and Tourism. Tài khoản is taken of the special needs of the historic heritage in the Nation Plan for the Development of Tourism & in the General Plan for the Socio – Economic Development of Duy Xuyen District.

A strategy for the revision of the Conservation Master plan of My Son is being developed as part of the current thutrang.edu.vn Asia- Pacific World Heritage site project for My Son, & should be integrated within an up khổng lồ date Management Plan for the site.

After the unification of Viet nam in 1975, conservation work began again in earnest và now the conservation of the property is of a high standard with both national và international teams working on site.

Although the Vietnamese authorities demined unexploded ordnance at four main monuments since 1975, this is progressing slowly và much de-mining work remains to lớn be carried out.

To further the safeguarding of the property, the Prime-Minister of Viet nam giới promulgated Decision 1915/ QĐ-TTg, which gave formal approval và provided budgetary tư vấn for the property’s Master Plan (2008 to lớn 2020) for the conservation & tourism promotion of the property.

The management of the forested areas surrounding the site needs to be improved to allow better environmental protection of the property. Detailed monitoring of these areas for the effects of extreme climatic conditions should continue to lớn be addressed, và should be included in the future long-term management of the property.

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With significantly increased numbers of tourists visiting the site, managing its carrying–capacity will be increasingly important & should also be addressed as part of a Management Plan as is required for the site.

It is essential to lớn continue with the de-mining work khổng lồ ensure the safety of people & to allow appropriate access và understanding of the monuments in their setting.