truyentranh

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Hero Hesman – one of the longest-running chuyện tranh series, drawn in 1992 by artist Hùng Lân.
The Tale of Kiều - a popular long-running chuyện tranh series.

Truyện tranh (Chữ Hán: 傳幀) means comic in Vietnamese (aka Vietnamese Comics). This term has the English name Viet comics created by Floral Age Bimonthly magazine in the 1960s vĩ đại refer vĩ đại comics originating in Vietnam. It is sometimes called by the older name Mạn họa (Chữ Hán: 漫畫). In Vietnamese sometimes it will be called by longer names such as: "Truyện giành Việt Nam", "truyện giành Việt", "truyện giành nội", "truyện giành ta", "truyện giành vô nước",... vĩ đại distinguish it from imported comics such as: "Truyện giành Âu Mỹ" (Western comics), "truyện giành Nhật Bản" (Manga).

History[edit]

Pre-1900[edit]

A page from the book "Mechanics and crafts of the Annamites" illustrates the fiction of Romance of the Three Kingdoms.

During the medieval period, Truyện tranh were often called mạn họa (漫畫)[citation needed], liên-hoàn họa (連環畫, sequential drawings) or phong-tục họa (風俗畫, custom drawings), and were influenced by Đài Loan Trung Quốc and sometimes India.[1] They illustrated philosophy or stories and were printed using woodcuts.[2] There were some drawings called "moral books" (Luân-lý giáo-khoa thư) for the education of women.

French Indochina (1900–1953)[edit]

Lý-Toét and the Chief Justice in Customs & Mores Weekly

After the establishment of French Indochina, printing technology developed enough that books and newspapers became more common. Viet comics appeared gradually as cartoons called hoạt kê họa (滑稽畫), hí họa (戲畫) or biếm họa (貶畫).

In the 1930s during the Westernization movement, Viet comics became an independent art with numerous artists and readers. Customs & Mores Weekly (Phong-Hóa tuần-báo) and Today Weekly (Ngày-Nay tuần-báo) published cartoons such as Bang Bạnh - Xã Xệ - Lý Toét. The weekly newspaper Cậu-Ấm tuần-báo featured the "Three adventurous kids" (Ba đứa trẻ em mạo-hiểm), Drake Weekly (Vịt-Đực tuần-báo) published sequential drawings that often satirized Annamese writers and the Indochinese government, especially the Governors-General. Viet comics were called chuyện vị tranh (stories by drawings).

After World War II, there were propaganda comics against the occupying French forces. In Hanoi and Saigon there were comics what based on romance novels or knightly tales. Some comics were on the topic of Vietnamese history and mythology.

  • Nguyễn Tường Tam (Đông Sơn)
  • Lê Minh Ðức (Bút Sơn)
  • Nguyễn Gia Trí (Raitơ)
  • Tô Ngọc Vân (Tô Tử, Ái Mĩ)
  • Nguyễn Thứ Lễ (Lê Ta)
  • Nguyễn Tường Long (Tứ Ly)
  • Bùi Xuân Phái

Northern and Southern Vietnam (1954–1975)[edit]

Article about ViVi and his career in Floral Age Bimonthly

Floral Age Bimonthly (established in 1962) called Truyện tranh as Tranh-truyện Việt-nam (Vietnamese pictorial stories).

Topics included family, friendship, adventure, detective stories, science fiction, wuxia, and fairy tales. The works were influenced by French comics, American comics, Hollywood, and even Jin Yong's works.

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In the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, comics usually appeared in Pioneer Magazine, Children Magazine and Kim-Đồng books. Northern artists' styles were influenced by Soviet art.

  • Đào Sĩ Chu
  • Nguyễn Hải Chí (Chóe)
  • Võ Hùng Kiệt (ViVi)
  • Hướng Dương
  • Nguyễn Tài
  • Nguyễn Đình
  • Đoàn Đức Tiên
  • Vịt Mò
  • Kiến Vàng

Era of Subsidy (1976–1985)[edit]

After Reunification Day, Viet comics' style became less diverse because of censorship and a lack of printing facilities. In the 1980s there were some artists of Kim Đồng Publishing House who began working using inexpensive dó paper. Topics were often chosen vĩ đại avoid censorship.

  • Ngô Mạnh Lân
  • Hoàng Dzự[3] (Dzím)

Era of Reform (1986–2006)[edit]

The most famous artist was Nguyễn Hùng Lân, whose popular comics included Hero Hesman, Vietnamese supermen, Tý Quậy, and Vietnamese fairytales. Many artists borrowed topics and characters from international comics and animated films for imitating. Examples include Well, Just You Wait!, Superman, Jurassic Park and Tom and Jerry.

  • Nguyễn Hùng Lân
  • Nguyễn Phước Vĩnh Khoa (VINK)
  • Nguyễn Hà Bắc
  • Phạm Minh Trí
  • Nguyễn Thái Hùng
  • Vũ Kim Dũng
  • Đào Hải

Era of Development (2007 vĩ đại now)[edit]

Youth Laughs Monthly, Hoa Học Trò Weekly and Truyện Tranh Trẻ Magazine (Youth Publishing House) continue vĩ đại produce comics. Some of the work is influenced by manga, manhwa, and manhua.[4]

In 2013, the historical comic The Holy Dragon Imperator (Long thần tướng) created by Nguyễn Thành Phong and Nguyễn Khánh Dương became a successful crowd-funding project.[5] The comic earned a Silver Award at Japan's năm nhâm thìn International MANGA Awards.[6][7][8] Then there are many other Viet comics were published using the crowd-funding method. For example "Bad Luck" by Châu Chặt Chém, "Gateway vĩ đại Underworld" (Địa Ngục Môn) by Can Tiểu Hy. "Gateway vĩ đại Underworld" also earned a Silver Award at Japan's 2017 International MANGA Awards.[9]

Viet comics in this era is full of historical and Vietnamese culture. The "Holy Dragon Imperator" has Trần Quang Đức as a Historical Consultant and main character in "Gateway vĩ đại Underworld" wear Áo lâu năm (Vietnamese traditional costume).

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  • Marcelino Truong[10]
  • Tạ Huy Long[11]
  • Thiết Kiện

See also[edit]

  • Literature of Vietnam
  • Vietnamese animation

References[edit]

External links[edit]

  • A Vietnamese family's refugee story, told through comics
  • Awakening Luc-van-Tien fairytale after 100 years